Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling

Pharmacokinetics use mathematical models to describe and predict the time-course of drug concentrations in body fluids, while pharmacodynamics study the time course and intensity of drug effects on the organism. At Frontage, scientists use highly sensitive and specific methods for quantitation of drug concentrations, including gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy to monitor pertinent analytes and metabolites.


Among our services are:

  • Pre-formulation development

  • Bioavailability studies

  • Bioequivalence studies

  • Metabolite profiling


  • AUC 0-t

  • AUCinf

  • AUC/AUCinf

  • Cmax

  • Tmax

  • Kel

  • t½

Sample Analysis Report

Frontage is experienced with providing final study reports in the required FDA formats (including hyperlinked eCTD formatting) and has been supporting the approval of novel and generic products since 2002.