Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK)

Frontage’s DMPK services helps you start building a strong product foundation at early stages of drug development.

For pharmaceutical development, we offer metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies, both in vivo and in vitro, that help characterize compounds and analyze their biodistribution for IND filings. A range of capabilities and experience support discovery and development drug candidates.

For agrochemicals, we offer comprehensive residual analyses, syntheses of metabolite standards and GLP mass balance studies with radiolabeled compounds.

Frontage’s DMPK laboratory facilities are AAALAC-accredited.

Drug Discovery and development

  • In vitro ADME studies
  • In vivo studies
  • Non-GLP bioanalytical studies
  • Radiolabeled studies


  • Animal, plant and soil metabolism
  • GLP mass balance studies
  • In vitro and in vivo studies
  • Chemistry support
    • Syntheses of metabolite standards
    • Physical/chemical profiling
    • Product certification
    • Formulation stability

our recent adme experience

  • Metabolic stability using animal and human liver microsomes or hepatocytes
  • Metabolic pathway identification using chemical inhibition, antibody inhibition, recombinant cDNA CYP450s and correlation analysis
  • Metabolite identification and profiling and structure elucidation
  • CYP450 inhibition and induction up to 10 isoforms with 15 probe substrates
  • Protein binding including red blood cell partitioning using equilibrium dialysis or ultracentrifugation
  • Aqueous solubility/log D

In vivo studies

  • Metabolite ID involving plasma and urine
  • Pharmacokinetic studies and quantitative LC/MS  analysis
  • Animal model development

non-glp bioanalytical studies

  • PK/PD biomarker assessment
  • PK Studies in rodents, dogs and NHP
  • Pharmacology support
  • Early ADME Studies including Protein Binding, Permeability, and CYP Inhibition Studies
  • Target Tissue Exposure
  • Salt/Formulation Selection

radiolabeled studies

Mechanistic or routine metabolism studies with stable isotope labeled (13C, 2H) or radiolabeled (14C, 3H) compounds.  We offer in-house capabilities to synthesize stable isotope labeled compounds for metabolism studies.